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What is an IDIQ?

About IDIQs - History

What is an IDIQ?


It Started with Indefinite Delivery Contracts

Existing in federal procurement since 1981, and only recently making its way down to state and municipal levels, Indefinite Delivery (ID) contracting is a procurement mechanism designed to streamline the competitive bidding process for governmental owners.


Invented by the Department of Defense for use by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), ID contracts have been used routinely and effectively by the DoD for installation maintenance, minor repair, and construction projects since their inception in 1981. If the Indefinite Delivery contract covers the provisions of construction services, it is typically referred to as a “JOC,” or “Job Order Contract”. Contracts designed primarily for non-construction related services are referred to as “TOC,” or “Task Order Contracts”.


Three Types of ID Contracts

There are essentially three types of Indefinite Delivery contracts:

  • Definite Quantity Contracts,

  • Requirement Contracts, and

  • Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contracts.

What Is an Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) Contract?

In contrast to Definite Quantity and Requirement Contracts, as defined by the Federal Acquisition Regulations, an Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity or IDIQ contract provides for an indefinite quantity, within stated limits, of supplies or services to be furnished during a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled by placing orders with the contractor. The legal origin of IDIQ contracts is the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) section 16.504(a) (48 C.F.R. 16.504(a)).


IDIQ contracts are most often used for service contracts and Architect-Engineering (A-E) services. Awards are usually for base years as well as option years. The government places Delivery Orders (for supplies) or Task Orders (for services) against a basic contract for individual requirements. Minimum and maximum quantity limits are specified in the basic contract either as the number of units (for supplies) or as dollar values (for services). The government uses an IDIQ contract when it cannot predetermine, above a specified minimum, the precise quantities of supplies or services that it will require during the contract period.

An IDIQ contract allows for a certain amount of contract process streamlining, as post IDIQ contract award negotiations can be made only with the selected company (or companies) that have been awarded the IDIQ contract vehicle, and such contracts are exempt from protest, per Federal Acquisition Regulations Subpart 33. IDIQ contracts are awarded by numerous U.S. government agencies, including, but not limited to, the General Services Administration (GSA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and DoD. IDIQs can be in the form of multi-agency contracts under the Government-Wide Acquisition Contracts (GWAC) system, or they may be government agency-specific contracts. . 


IDIQ Proposal Responses

IDIQ proposal response requirements oftentimes require less new and creative content from your professional staff. Unless a response to sample or actual task or delivery order(s) are a part of the IDIQ requirements and evaluation process, there is minimal, if any, technical response or requirement to designate any key personnel. Past Performance and Previous Experience are, like with most government contract opportunities, one of the most important evaluation criteria, followed by the Management Plan (contract management, task order management, subcontractor management, and employee management including recruiting, training, and retention). Pricing is often quoted at a ceiling/not-to-exceed rate that allows for the reduction of pricing at the Delivery Order or Task Order level.

IDIQs - Reduce Competition

If you win an IDIQ contract, you benefit from competing against only a small subset of the total number of companies that submitted proposals in response to the IDIQ opportunity. Some IDIQs are awarded to a single company - others have hundreds of awardees. Regardless of the number of awardees, an IDIQ contract win reduces the odds of winning future business from one-in-several hundred to as small as one-in-five or one-in-ten. Marketing/capture management-aggressive awardees will discover quickly that there oftentimes only a few respondents to a task or delivery order opportunity and at times you may be the only bidder.

Does Your Firm Need to be on an IDIQ?

Very simply, Yes!


Without a contract vehicle (GSA Schedule, IDIQ/GWAC),

your company will not be eligible for billions of dollars in federal contracts

Rainmaker is The IDIQ Expert idiqexpert.com 


Rainmaker GPS and its Rich History and Success with IDIQs


While many companies and industry professionals are experts in many aspects of the federal government contracting, some do not understand or appreciate the psychology and/or strategic importance of IDIQs and the short- and long-term benefits an IDIQ contract brings to a company in any stage of its growth cycle.


Proposal management of and proposal responses to Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ), including Multiple Award Task Order Contracts (MATOCs) and Governmentwide Acquisition Contracts (GWACs), are different from any other type of federal proposal response. Rainmaker has been responding to IDIQ contracts since 1993.


Over the past 26 years, and in response to the continuous, growing number of IDIQ and similar indefinite delivery contract vehicles, Rainmaker GPS has designed, built, and today manages the most advanced IDIQ-specific proposal response and management practice in the federal contracting industry.